By Kendra P. Rumbaugh, Iqbal Ahmad
This publication offers a survey of modern advances within the improvement of antibiofilm brokers for medical and environmental functions. the truth that microbes exist in dependent groups referred to as biofilms has slowly develop into authorised in the scientific neighborhood. We now understand that over eighty% of all infectious ailments are biofilm-related; in spite of the fact that, major demanding situations nonetheless lie in our skill to diagnose and deal with those super recalcitrant infections.
Written by means of specialists from around the world, this ebook bargains a helpful source for doctors looking to deal with biofilm-related ailment, educational and researchers attracted to drug discovery and teachers who train classes on microbial pathogenesis and clinical microbiology.
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Additional info for Antibiofilm Agents: From Diagnosis to Treatment and Prevention
1979), but despite their proven value they require that the tissue be exposed to a series of chemical rinses. In addition, while bacterial cells can be differentiated from host cells and structures by means of morphology, imaging of EPS poses a challenge. In this chapter, certain aspects that influence biofilm imaging in tissues will be discussed including sample collection, fixation, embedding and sectioning, staining, and microscopy. Although electron microscopy can be used for highresolution analysis of tissue samples, this chapter focuses primarily on fluorescence microscopy.
1967). Thus, fixation is an important and necessary step in tissue preparation for microscopy. Certain fixatives, such as glutaraldehyde, are known to induce specimen fluorescence (Collins and Goldsmith 1981). This fixation-induced fluorescence is caused by a reaction between the amines and proteins from the tissue and the aldehyde groups in the fixative generating fluorescent products (Wright Cell Imaging Facility 2013). Thus, for fluorescence microscopy, it is important to select a fixative that will provide adequate preservation of tissue while inducing minimal fluorescence.
The type of tissue, amount of biofilm, and fixation method may influence the outcome of staining, so testing a diverse array of stains, concentrations, and staining times may result in identifying the best approach. The combination of SYTO® 9, a green nucleic acid stain, and propidium iodide, a red nucleic acid stain has been used for staining of biofilms in tissue by several groups. Both stains are part of commercially available LIVE/DEAD® kits from Life Technologies. SYTO® 9 stains the nucleic acids of bacteria with either damaged or intact membranes, while propidium iodide rapidly penetrates bacteria with damaged membranes.
Antibiofilm Agents: From Diagnosis to Treatment and Prevention by Kendra P. Rumbaugh, Iqbal Ahmad