By Johannes Lehmann, Dirse C. Kern, Bruno Glaser, William I. Woods
Darkish Earths are a testomony to vanished civilizations of the Amazon Basin, yet can also solution how huge societies may maintain extensive agriculture in an atmosphere of infertile soils. This e-book examines their beginning, homes, and administration. Questions stay: have been they deliberately produced or a spinoff of habitation. extra new and multidisciplinary views by way of prime specialists may perhaps pave the way in which for the subsequent revolution in soil administration within the humid tropics.
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Extra info for Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management
Forests currently found throughout Amazônia. Modern hunter-gatherer populations in Amazônia show successful adaptations to tropical conditions, probably not unlike those seen in the archaeological evidence from early occupations. These patterns include the direct exploitation of a diversity of resources through hunting, fishing and foraging, but they also practice long-term environmental management that creates patches of useful resources spread over large areas (Politis, 2001). Such patches are mentally mapped and recorded by modern Amerindians, serving as nodal points connecting paths and routes, which in turn extend over extensive areas.
It was far more time consuming to clear a prehistoric field with a stone axe than it is to clear a modern field using a steel axe (Roth, 1924; Carneiro, 1983; Denevan, 1992). With greater effort required to clear a field greater effort may have been devoted to its maintenance. As Carneiro (1983) points out, fields are typically abandoned because of weed invasion rather than because of soil infertility. With fields more difficult to clear, it would have been advantageous to put more time into weeding.
10,000 years BP have been identified in areas adjacent to the alluvial floodplains of some large rivers, such as the main stem of the Amazon and the Caquetá. , 1996) has dated radiocarbon samples associated with organic remains that date on average to ca. 10,600 BP (Fig. 2). At the sites of San Isidro and Peña Roja in Columbia, located next to the Araracuara rapids on the Caquetá River, the radiocarbon dates are slightly more recent, extending back to ca. 9,000 BP (Gnecco and Mora, 1997; Oliver, 2001).
Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management by Johannes Lehmann, Dirse C. Kern, Bruno Glaser, William I. Woods