Download PDF by G T Csanady,NetLibrary, Inc.: Air-sea interaction: laws and mechanisms

By G T Csanady,NetLibrary, Inc.

ISBN-10: 0511041241

ISBN-13: 9780511041242

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Example text

Later studies of Geernaert et al. (1987), Bradley et al. 10 here, from Bradley et al. (1991). 56 × 10−3 , according to the smooth law. 10 Drag coefficients at low wind speeds, from Bradley et al. (1991). The lines show formulae recommended by different authors. at 3 m s−1 , although the observations taken in the subtropical Atlantic remain closer to it than the Southern Ocean ones. The very high drag coefficients at very low wind speeds, reported in all three recent studies, were obtained by the dissipation method, the validity of which under such challenging conditions remains to be confirmed.

The product of density and specific heat is much higher for water than for air, however, so that the water-side Resistance again makes a negligible contribution to the total, even more so than in momentum transfer. 44) The right-hand side has the dimension of velocity, and is the rate at which the airside boundary layer thickens. It may also be thought of as a heat transfer velocity: multiplied by the initial air-side heat content per unit area, ρa c pa θ∞ , it yields the heat flux. Scalar-property transfer laws are often expressed in terms of such a transfer velocity.

18 m s−1 , the drag coefficients very low. Similarly, low drag coefficients were reported by Barger et al. (1970) over artificially produced sea slicks in Buzzard’s Bay in Massachusetts, that depressed the surface tension of the water surface. The “supersmooth” character of the water surface in these observations may have been the result of energy drain from air-side turbulence to the free surface, similar to the effect of drag-reducing chemicals on boundary layers over solid surfaces. Exactly how, and under precisely what conditions, such drag reduction over water surfaces occurs, is not clear.

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Air-sea interaction: laws and mechanisms by G T Csanady,NetLibrary, Inc.


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