Download PDF by Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker (auth.): Abstraction in artificial intelligence and complex systems

By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker (auth.)

ISBN-10: 146147051X

ISBN-13: 9781461470519

ISBN-10: 1461470528

ISBN-13: 9781461470526

Abstraction is a basic mechanism underlying either human and synthetic conception, illustration of data, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs a very important function in lots of disciplines, significantly machine Programming, normal and synthetic imaginative and prescient, advanced platforms, synthetic Intelligence and laptop studying, artwork, and Cognitive Sciences. This booklet first presents the reader with an outline of the notions of abstraction proposed in quite a few disciplines via evaluating either commonalities and adjustments. After discussing the characterizing houses of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to catch them. This version makes the inspiration of abstraction simply appropriate through the advent of a suite of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout diversified domain names and purposes. it's the impression of abstraction in synthetic Intelligence, complicated structures and computer studying which creates the center of the ebook. A basic framework, according to the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic strength is illustrated with 3 case reviews: Model-based analysis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.

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27, Issue 1 (1997). 13 The idea of an increasing children’s ability to handle abstraction agrees with Piaget’s genetic epistemology [417], where he distinguishes empirical abstraction, focusing on objects, and reflective abstraction, in which the mental concepts and actions are the focus of abstraction. Young children primarily use empirical abstraction to organize the world, and then they increasingly use reflective abstraction to organize mental concepts. The basis for Piaget’s notion of abstraction is the ability to find structures, patterns or regularities in the world.

The use of non-figurative patterns is not new, as many of them appear on pottery and textiles from pre-historical times. However, these patterns were elements of decoration, and did not have necessarily the ambition to be called “art”. A great impulse to the abandon of faithfulness to reality, especially in painting, was given by the advent of photography. In fact, paintings were also intended to transmit to posterity the faces of important persons, or memories of historical events. Actually, a complex interplay exists among figurative works, abstract works, and photography.

Spatial and temporal granularities are closely related to the concept of grain-size in a local spatial context, defined by Schmidtke [478]. Objects that are smaller than the grain-size can be disregarded as unimportant details. If objects smaller than the grain-size need to be accessed, a change of context is necessary: zooming out of a scene, a larger area is covered, but small details are lost, whereas zooming into a scene, smaller details are magnified, and objects further away become irrelevant.

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Abstraction in artificial intelligence and complex systems by Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker (auth.)

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